Bones, Joints and Muscles

Bone can be divided into four types according to the shape: long bone, short bone, flat bone, and irregular bone. 

The skeletal 

periosteum is a layer of fibrous membrane on the surface of the bone that contains abundant blood vessels and nerve tissue. The subperiosteal is a hard, dense bone, and the inner part is the cancellous bone. The central part of the bone is the medullary cavity.

The joint 

is the connection between the bone and the bone. The connected bone ends usually have cartilage coverage, which reduces the impact damage to the bone itself when the joint is active. Some joints have joint capsules attached to them. The joint capsule envelops the joint cavity and contains joint fluid. 
The joint is adjacent to ligaments and accessory structures such as muscles and tendons.


can be divided into three categories, one is the striated muscles whose limbs, trunk, head and neck and cavity wall can be controlled by subjective will. The second is the smooth muscle of the internal organs (except the heart). The third is the myocardium in the heart chamber. Smooth muscle and myocardium are involuntary muscles that are not controlled by the will. 
The part where the muscles and bones meet is a tough structural structure called a tendon. The tough joint between the bone and the bone is the ligament.

Bones - bear the weight 

The function of the bone is to bear the weight of the body. The bones located around the chamber also protect the internal tissues. The bone marrow in the marrow cavity has a hematopoietic function.

Joints - promoting activities 

The role of the joint is to allow the bones to do what they can. The joint fluid has a lubricating effect and can also help reduce the shock to the bones. 
The ligaments and muscles around the joints act to stabilize the joints and do not easily dislocate due to activity.

Muscle - coordinated movement 

The muscle contraction becomes shorter after receiving the instruction of the body's nervous system, causing the movement of the attached body part.

Common diseases of the skeletal system: 

. Ankylosing spondylitis
. Osteoarthritis
. Tennis elbow
. Periarthritis of the shoulder 
. Painful convulsion

Common symptoms of the skeletal system: 

. Low back pain
. Hand shock
. Nail deformation
. Sore Leg


 The way to prevent sports bone trauma is to do warm-up exercises and to participate in appropriate sports; the safety of driving and working environment is also very important.

Nursing aspects 

When the musculoskeletal injury, stop the exercise, stabilize the injured part, and use the ice pack to reduce swelling and pain.


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